മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് – 19
English Structure – 6
- Every and All
- Every is a determiner * Every is an adjective.
- It is generally used before a singular noun.
- Every + singular noun + singular verb
- Every is equal to all
- The two words are used in different structures.
- All means a number of people or things considered as a group.
Every means a number of people or things considered invidually.
Eg: 1. Everyone likes an honest man.
- Everything has been returned
- Every seat in the hall was occupied
- Every child loves sweets
- Every body has attended the party
- All children love sweets
- All are equal before law
- I like all music
(all before uncountable nouns)
- She was here all day
(all = from morning to night)
- I have sent letters to all my friends
- I have sent letters to every my friends r
- I have sent letters to every friend I have
- Each / Every
- Each and every are both normally used with singular nouns.
- Each of them a Every of them r
- Each with two or more people or things
Every with three or more people or things
- Singular verb is used with each and every
Eg: 1. Each of us has two bags
- Each of you + singular verb
- Each of them + singular verb
- Each and every man and woman has a vote
- Each of the boys was given a prize
(Each is a pronoun)
- Each boy was given a prize
(Each qualifies boy. So it is an adjective)
- Each and every is an emphative form
Eg: Each and every student should attend the parade.
- Some / Any
- Some is used with affirmative
- Any is used with negative
- Any is used in questions
- In offers and requests some is used
- Someone takes a singular verb
- Any goes with hardly, barely and scarcely.
Eg: 1. Some birds can fly very high in the sky.
- You must give him some food and a cup of coffee.
- There are some beautiful flowers in the park
- The tea is very hot, I must put some milk in it.
- Put some butter on the bread.
- Is there any more coffee ?
- You can take any book you want.
- She hasn’t got any friends. So she is unhappy.
- Have you bought some paper and a pen ?
(Some is used in the interrogative because the expected answer is
- Is there any milk left ?
- Since / For
- Since is used to express time “from that point to the time of speaking”.
Eg: 1. He has been reading since 9 am.
(ie. He is still reading at the time of speaking)
- We have been friends since our boyhood days
(ie. Friendship continues even now)
- I have worked here since 2010.
- I have been reading a novel since breakfast
- He has been off work since the spread of covid – 19.
- Since + point of time.
- For + duration of time.
Eg: 1. I haven’t seen you for ten months.
(ie. I see you now.)
- We have lived in Kannur for five years
(ie. Still we live there)
- We lived there for five years
(ie. We don’t live there now)
- He has been sleeping – hours
- We’ve been studying English – ten years
- He has been living here – 1990
- I have been waiting – five o’clock
- They have been very busy – last Monday
- She has been teaching in that school – 2010
- It has been raining – yester night
- What have you been doing – yesterday ?
- I have been waiting – two hours, but she has not come yet.
- They have been building that bridge – several months, but they have not finished.
- For For 3. Since 4. Since 5. Since 6. since
- since 8. Since 9. For 10. for
- Had better
- Had better is used to give strong advice
- Had better refers to the immediate future, but the form is past.
- It is more urgent than should or ought
- After had better ,we use bare infinitive. The negative is had better not.
Eg: 1. You had better go now.
- I had better try again.
- You had better hurry up (ie. You must hurry up.)
- You had better consult a doctor.
- You had better go home at once.
(ie: I advise you to go home)
- It is advisable for you to stay in the hostel.
- It is desirable that you don’t borrow from him.
- I don’t think you should depend on him
- I would advise you to reserve ticket now.
- I would advise you to take medicine
- I think you should lock the door.
- I think you should accept that job.
- It is desirable that you bring your food with you.
- I would advise you to stop smoking
- I think you don’t miss the last bus.
- You had better stay in the hostel
- You had better not borrow from him
- You had better not depend on him
- You had better reserve the ticket now
- You had better take medicine
- You had better lock the door
- You had better accept that job.
- You had better bring your food with you
- You had better stop smoking
- You had better not miss the last bus
- before = previous to the time when.
Eg: 1. Take your medicine before you go to bed
- He had stopped writing before I entered the room
- He had met her three months before.
- Have you ever been here before ?
- We will start before 9 am (preposition)
- ‘A’ is used before a consonant (place)
- ‘An’ is used before a vowel (place)
- He cut down the tree. Then he went home
- Formers plough the fields. Then they sow their seeds
- We enter a temple. We should remove our slippers
- The teacher finished the lesson. Then he went to the staff room.
- Don’t count your chickens. They are not hatched.
- He had cut down the tree before he went home
- Farmers plough the fields before they sow their seeds
- We should remove our slippers before we enter a temple
- The teacher had finished the lesson before he went to the staff room.
- Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.
- After = later in time
- After = later
Eg: They started the work on Monday and finished four days later.
They started the work on Monday and finished after four days.
- After is followed by a noun or pronoun or gerund.
- If we do not use a noun or pronoun or gerund, we have to use
Eg: They played football and bathed afterwards.
After playing football, they bathed (after + gerund)
Combine using after
- The bell rang. Then the pupils went out.
- We got freedom. Then we drafted a new constitution
- He cleaned his teeth. He took his breakfast
- The fisherman collected the net. They went to the sea.
- The fire got under control. The fire engine arrived.
- The pupils went out after the bell had rung
- We drafted a new constitution after we got freedom
- He took his breakfast after he had cleaned his teeth
- The fisherman went to the sea after they had collected the nets.
- The fire got under control after the fire engine had arrived.
- Wish + a clause with past tense.
Eg: I wish I were rich
( in imaginery condition were is used. Now a days,
we use was also)
I wish I was rich
- Past tenses are used with wish to express. Present and future meaning
Eg: I wish I spoke English like an English man.
Rewrite using wish
- I was careless in spending the money
- The wells have dried up.
- I am to stay at home all day
- You will not listen to good advice
- The bus was crowded
- I have undertaken a task
- They missed the first chance
- I did not revise the lessons well.
- You smoke too much
- She was here listening to every word
- I wish I had not been careless in spending the money
- I wish the wells had not dried up
- I wish I were not to stay at home all day
- I wish you would listen to good advice
- I wish the bus had not been crowded
- I wish I had not undertaken a task
- They wish they had not missed the first chance
- I wish I had revised the lessons well
- I wish you did not smoke so much
- I wish she were not here listening to every word.
- It is time
- It’s time can be followed by an infinitive
Eg: 1. It’s time to arrest the film star
- It’s time for him to complete his assignment.
- It’s time for him to go to office
- It’s time to change this car
- It is time + clause with past tense show present or future meaning
Eg: 1. I am getting tired. It’s time we went home.
- It is time you joined a factory
- It’s time you white washed your apartment.
Begin with it is time
- The children should go to bed.
- You start learning seriously
- He should take his turn
- The students must be in the school now
- We repair this house
- It is time the children went to bed
- It is time you started learning seriously.
- It is time he took his turn
- It is time the students were in the school now
- It is time we repaired this house
- Mind is used to express a polite request.
- Mind + gerund
- Gerund = verbal noun ( – ing form )
- Mind = CjvS-s¸-Sm-Xn-cn-¡pI / hnjaw tXm¶pI
Eg: 1. Do you mind coming tomorrow ?
- I don’t mind coming (h-cp-¶-Xnv Fn¡v bmsXmcp aSnbpw CÃ)
- Do you mind my sitting here ?
- No, I don’t mind your sitting here.
- Would you mind waiting a little ?